The King of Kowloon: my seek for the cult graffiti prophet of Hong Kong | Hong Kong

The secret message solely seemed when the wall used to be sopping wet with rain. For weeks, I were scouring Hong Kong for those misshapen Chinese language characters, however the best way they materialised out of nowhere used to be a surprise. It used to be an unremarkable yellow-grey stone wall in the midst of Central, Hong Kong’s political and financial center. The phrases have been solely published when the wall were soaked; on this case after a downpour in July 2015, which left the wall darkened and damp. Unexpectedly it used to be imaginable to look spots the place the dove-grey paint had flaked off, revealing lines of Chinese language calligraphy. The writing, in clumsy, off-balance characters about 20cm top, used to be right away recognisable for its loss of grace, class or studying.

I will be able to’t be mindful the primary time I noticed characters like those. They have been in all places when I used to be rising up in Hong Kong within the Nineteen Seventies and 80s, a function of our town simply up to the bottle-green snub-nosed Big name Ferry and the noisy trams. Their writer used to be a fixture of the panorama as smartly: a dirty, toothless, incessantly shirtless, garbage collector with psychological well being problems. He known as himself the King of Kowloon. Hopping on his crutches, with plastic luggage swinging from the handles, his crablike, bow-legged silhouette used to be so unique that, if folks noticed him within the distance, they might pass the street to keep away from him. As he handed, oldsters would defend their children’ eyes from him and mutter, “Chi-sin a!” Loopy! He even changed into a playground taunt – “You’re the King of Kowloon!” – levelled on the gradual children, the unusual ones, the deficient ones, the outcasts.

His given title used to be Tsang Tsou-choi, and he had crossed the border to Hong Kong from mainland China on the age of 16. Tsang had since grow to be satisfied that Kowloon peninsula, the southernmost level of what’s now mainland China, had belonged to his circle of relatives and were stolen from them via the British within the nineteenth century. He later prolonged his claims to the entire of Hong Kong.

It used to be within the Fifties that he began his graffiti protest towards the lack of his land to the British. His denunciations took the type of tottering towers of crooked Chinese language calligraphy through which he painstakingly wrote out his whole lineage, all 21 generations of it, pairing names with the puts that they had misplaced, and every so often topping all of it off with expletives like “Fuck the Queen!” He used to be cautious in his selection of canvas, solely writing on govt assets – partitions, flyovers, electrical energy packing containers, postboxes. His messages have been virtually at all times straight away washed away or painted over via a military of presidency cleaners with skinny hand towels placing from the backs in their hats for makeshift sunscreens. However in a single day his phrases could be again once more.

After Hong Kong used to be returned to Chinese language rule in 1997, Tsang’s messaging persisted. That used to be the yr the King’s elevation to a cult determine started. Since then, he has been exhibited via one of the global’s most sensible curators, with the neatest public sale properties promoting his wonky calligraphy, daubed on paper or picket forums and T-shirts – even on a scooter, which bought for HK$1.8m (£200,000). He changed into a way icon, inspiring a Hong Kong clothier to create a chain of collections celebrating his paintings. And in 2003, the King of Kowloon even changed into the primary Hongkonger to constitute the town on the Venice Biennale. To the folks of Hong Kong, Tsang has grow to be one thing of a folks hero. Via his assertions of kingliness, he got here to embrace a Hong Kong id distinct from both its British or its Chinese language rulers, whilst his relentless, subversive messaging took politics to the road, offering a blueprint that used to be emulated a long time later via protest actions roiling the town.


My obsession with the King of Kowloon began small. My preliminary goal used to be merely to write down an editorial about him. 8 years later, I’ve written a e-book about him, in addition to a PhD, and a six-part podcast. In the beginning, I merely sought after to determine whether or not he had any official declare to the land – he asserted that he had noticed ancestral paperwork mentioning his extended family’s possession of the peninsula. However my project used to be sophisticated via the truth that Tsang had died in 2007, and his circle of relatives had at all times refused to speak to the media.

The King used to be a slippery matter. The extra I appeared, the fewer I looked as if it would to find. Everybody knew him however nobody looked as if it would have any concrete details about him. I started via monitoring down individuals who’d frolicked with him. I trekked out to housing estates and sipped tea with gallerists, went to musicians’ studios in difficult to understand business constructions and artists’ workshops in Victorian abattoirs. Once I requested about his psychological state, some informed me that “the King” – for the ones I spoke to at all times known as him via his self-appointed identify – used to be delusional. He had schizophrenia. He had more than one character dysfunction. Others stated he used to be completely sane and performed mahjong ceaselessly along with his neighbours. He remained bafflingly unknowable.

The day I noticed the characters at the wall in 2015 unlocked feelings that I had now not recognized have been there: nostalgia and a virtually bodily sense of loss. The phrases have been so acquainted, that they had grow to be an integral a part of our cityscape, and it used to be solely once I noticed them within the wild that I realised simply how a lot I ignored them.

Each and every so incessantly, within the years that adopted, I might examine every other piece of calligraphy showing. In 2019, across the time when 2 million folks took to the streets within the greatest demonstrations ever noticed in Hong Kong, Tsang’s off-balance calligraphy seemed on a flyover pillar close to the Central Height Tram terminus, the place paint strips had peeled away, revealing the characters beneath.

Then simply two months in the past, a big patch of the writing materialised beneath a railway bridge in Kowloon. This time the semblance of the calligraphy used to be obviously planned and had not anything to do with the elements: the topmost layer of gray paint were chipped away to show the hidden characters beneath. It used to be antique, unmistakable King of Kowloon calligraphy; solely he wrote in that hand, and he at all times wrote the similar issues: screeds of names, invoking his circle of relatives family tree and the puts that they had misplaced. Hongkongers flocked to snap images of the miraculous calligraphy; it invoked that very same nostalgic longing in them because it had in me.

The thriller used to be why and the way the phrases had reappeared so unexpectedly, such a lot of years after their writer’s dying.


The King of Kowloon’s transformation – from native crank to icon – started within the fervid months main as much as Hong Kong’s go back to Chinese language sovereignty. The ambience used to be a mix of nostalgia and fearful hope, as Hongkongers started to discover their distinctive id. Towards that backdrop, the King of Kowloon – a subversive, individualistic, rebellious persona – started to be noticed as a personification of Hong Kong’s specific characteristics.

All through this era, he used to be incessantly accompanied via a well known artwork curator, Lau Relations-wai, a bon vivant with a style for showmanship. He introduced Tsang Tsou-choi brushes and ink, and went out on his calligraphy expeditions with him to {photograph} his paintings. Lau, a celebrated determine within the artwork global, delivered lunch packing containers to Tsang’s fetid flat, or even went as far as to strap his sandals directly to his unwashed toes.

In April 1997, Lau organised a solo exhibition of labor via the King of Kowloon. Because it used to be unimaginable to transport Tsang’s standard canvas – the town itself – right into a gallery, Lau gave Tsang smaller, extra saleable gadgets to color, similar to paper lanterns, glass bottles, a copper and – prophetically – an umbrella. Tsang, thrilled with the eye his paintings used to be getting, coated those items in his unique deficient guy’s characters. On the opening, the King obviously loved the limelight, beaming as he used to be surrounded via journalists. As reporters known as out questions on his artwork, and whether or not he anticipated to regain his circle of relatives holdings, he shouted, “Fuck off!” and proclaimed himself proprietor of the whole lot inside of eyeshot.

Some of Tsang’s work at a Star Ferry pier in Hong Kong.
A few of Tsang’s paintings at a Big name Ferry pier in Hong Kong. {Photograph}: South China Morning Publish/Getty Pictures

The exhibition catalogue aimed to position the King’s paintings throughout the canon of classical calligraphy. However the status quo didn’t agree. “He’s psychotic,” one professor of good arts fumed to the Washington Publish because the exhibition opened, “I don’t see any inventive worth.”

The display used to be a sensation, a circus, probably the most scandalous exhibition in dwelling reminiscence. Now not a unmarried piece of artwork bought, however Lau didn’t care. A long time later he remembered the display as a triumph. “The exhibition used to be arguable,” he informed me, smiling. “That used to be one thing I love to do. I really like controversy.”

Calligraphy by Tsang Tsou-Choi (left) next to Keith Haring’s Untitled, 1983 at the preview of an auction at Sotheby’s Hong Kong in 2015.
Calligraphy via Tsang Tsou-Choi (left) subsequent to Keith Haring’s Untitled, 1983 on the preview of an public sale at Sotheby’s Hong Kong in 2015. {Photograph}: South China Morning Publish/Getty Pictures

Tsang’s newfound status didn’t alternate the best way he lived, and he persisted leaving his rental each morning at 7am to color at the streets. Even if he had a spouse and youngsters, they didn’t are living with him. He lived in an rental in a public housing property, and people who visited him discovered the enjoy traumatically memorable: each inch of wall area used to be stuffed with calligraphy, there used to be virtually no furnishings and the ground used to be coated with balled-up paper and working with cockroaches. The King lived off incapacity advantages, awarded after his legs were overwhelmed in an twist of fate at paintings. There used to be a gentle circulation of creditors and enthusiasts at his doorstep, they usually incessantly paid for his paintings in lunchboxes of roast beef with beancurd, and cans of ice-cold Coke. The King, who by no means noticed himself as an artist, appeared content material with the ones preparations. “I don’t care about cash and status,” he informed one interviewer, “They must simply give me again my throne.”

The recognition of the King of Kowloon collected momentum throughout the handover yr, as Britain ready to divest itself of its final last colony. For 1997 model week – the final beneath the British management – clothier William Tang Tat-chi made his complete display a homage to the King of Kowloon. The gathering used to be cool and quirky, with each and every piece coated with the King’s feature calligraphy. The pièce de résistance used to be a concrete-coloured, graffiti-covered uneven one-shoulder robe with a 20-metre teach – Tang stated he had discovered the material so gorgeous that he couldn’t carry himself to chop it.

At this historical second, the display made a daring observation about Hong Kong’s distinct id. Tsang’s hasty, crowded calligraphy echoed the power and density of Hong Kong’s streets, and the face of the type striding down the runway used to be steely with choice. It used to be a defining second, the release of a Hong Kong aesthetic that conveyed the island’s sense of itself: fashionable, hybrid, streetwise, assured.

Once I met Tang in 2019, he used to be wearing black, tall and astonishingly boyish for 60. Once I requested him to sum up the have an effect on of the gathering, he smiled. It used to be, he asserted, probably the most – in point of fact the one – memorable assortment in Hong Kong’s model historical past.

For Hongkongers, the display had deep historic resonances. William Tang Tat-chi is a descendant of the {powerful} Tang extended family, which settled in Hong Kong in AD973. They have been the unique landowners who were dispossessed and who had, in 1899, led the Six-Day warfare opposing the British takeover of the New Territories. “My circle of relatives – the Tangs – had been right here for 1,000 years,” Tang informed me. “We must be the Kings of Kowloon.”

Once I requested Tang to give an explanation for the importance of the gathering, he struggled to place it into phrases. “Folks have been giggling about it,” he informed me, shaking his head, “They stated: ‘Is the speculation that you’re the usage of the King of Kowloon to speak about your circle of relatives?’ I stated: ‘Don’t make it that sophisticated. I’m now not that more or less particular person.’”

For the King himself, the crooked characters can have merely expressed a slim non-public quest, however Hongkongers discovered the fidelity of his message reassuring at a time of intense alternate, in addition to representing a valuable collective reminiscence. For the ones within the know, his characters invoked subject matters that had historically remained unstated: a historical past of mass dispossession, the stinging humiliation of a once-powerful extended family and a message that none of this were forgotten. His lack of land can have been imagined, however to a folks passed from one sovereign energy to every other, its metaphorical energy nonetheless resonated.

After the handover, the King’s celebrity persisted to upward thrust. He starred in a funny TV advert for a cleansing fluid, which rebranded him as a cuddly mascot. He made cameo appearances in movies shot in Hong Kong. His paintings used to be integrated in a traveling exhibition known as Towns At the Transfer curated via artworld superstars Hans Ulrich Obrist and Hou Hanru, and in 1999, his paintings travelled to Taiwan and the United States, along that of Mao Zedong, in a display organised via one in all Hong Kong’s most renowned curators, Johnson Chang Tsong-zung. In 2001, he changed into the primary Hongkonger to turn on the prestigious Venice Biennale. In 2004, a picket board painted via the King bought for HK$55,000. An approach to life emblem coated its merchandise along with his writing, advertising King of Kowloon undies, bedding and slippers. However the King’s lifestyles didn’t alternate. Even if he had grow to be a star and one thing of a commodity, he persisted to color at the streets.


From 2004, Tsang’s paintings started to vanish from the streets. He used to be nonetheless dwelling in his stinking 18th-floor rental in a Kwun Tong public housing property, surrounded via empty ink bottles and dried brushes. However in 2004, on the age of 83, he unintentionally set the rental on fireplace. His circle of relatives took the chance to transport him right into a nursing house.

In the beginning, he used to be distraught, because the house banned him from portray, owing to the mess and odor of the sticky black conventional calligraphy ink. Not able to color, the King may just now not sleep at night time. However quickly an answer used to be discovered, via a tender promoting government known as Joel Chung Ying-chai, who had taken over one of the paintings previously finished via Lau. Chung introduced the King markers and paper to write down on. However the King’s ideograms have been changing into misshapen and at a loss for words, the strains looping unpredictably round each and every different. From time to time, he forgot how one can write the acquainted characters and needed to ask Chung for lend a hand.

In 2007, he used to be hospitalised 3 times for court cases together with pulmonary edema. Chung visited him in health facility, bringing some yellow canvases and a lemon-yellow type of a terracotta warrior for the King to signal, for a charity public sale. The King appeared cheerful, however his characters have been meandering and misaligned. As he painted, he commented, “Hi there! I’m now not the King any longer! I’m now not doing it. I’m now not!”

Chung used to be at a loss for words. He requested: “You’re now not the King?”

The solution used to be good-natured however company. “I’m now not doing it. I’m now not the King! Let somebody else do it!”

Later on, Chung realised that Tsang had signed the again of the terracotta warrior now not along with his same old “King of Kowloon” however with a scrawled “Tsang Tsou-choi.”

On 15 July 2007, Tsang died of a center assault. It took greater than 10 days for the inside track to emerge – Chung used to be busy running on a e-book in regards to the King and now not visiting each day, and Tsang’s circle of relatives have been embarrassed in regards to the consideration he attracted – but if it did, the King’s dying used to be reported in newspapers around the political spectrum, even the Communist-sympathising Wen Wei Po. He used to be in comparison to Van Gogh and Picasso, celebrated for the simplicity of his way of life and his paintings ethic. Apple Day-to-day, a pro-democracy newspaper that used to be close down in 2021, published a full-colour commemorative version with a wraparound entrance web page saying “The King Is Useless!” This selection of language used to be planned, the usage of a type of Chinese language characters – 駕崩 – reserved for the dying of a monarch. This lamentation echoed around the entrance pages. “The King is lifeless and everyone seems to be lacking him … The King is lifeless and his persons are crying and wailing … The King is lifeless, his ink treasures have been poetic masterpieces … The King is lifeless, who will prevail him?”

Tsang’s legacy on the time of his dying used to be in all probability perfect summed up via his good friend, the rap celebrity MC Yan. (Tsang used to say that the rapper, who wore his hair in a pigtail, used to be a time traveller from historical China.) Yan informed a reporter, “Regardless of if he’s a real or faux [king], he used to be very positive of his personal id, in contrast to Hong Kong individuals who don’t know in the event that they’re from the east or the west.”

Tsang Tsou-choi at work in 2002.
Tsang Tsou-choi at paintings in 2002. {Photograph}: South China Morning Publish/Getty Pictures

The King had solely ever had one message – a constant observation of his ancestry and sovereignty. It might be learn as an statement of id and a repudiation of colonisation. For his admirers, this stood by contrast to the mealy-mouthed pronouncements of successive, unpopular China-appointed leader executives who, via their very process description, were not able to talk both for themselves or for the folks of Hong Kong. His supporters noticed the King of Kowloon because the final loose Hongkonger, with the autonomy to talk his thoughts.

All over his lifestyles, Tsang had by no means noticed himself as an artist. However after his dying, his paintings won in worth. Retrospectives have been placed on in Hong Kong, and a thick monograph about him used to be published, through which Hans Ulrich Obrist known as him a “poet whose web page used to be the general public area”.

However his significance used to be now not such a lot as an artist as a pioneer of political graffiti. His messages of protest entered the town’s bloodstream. In 2014, when protesters stuffed the territory’s streets right through the Umbrella Motion, they followed the King’s strategies.

That yr, an estimated 1.2 million Hongkongers occupied 3 main thoroughfares for 79 days to call for extra say within the selection of leader government. Close to the federal government headquarters in Admiralty, they feathered one wall with declarations scrawled on sorbet-coloured Publish-it notes: “Combating for Democracy!” “We like Hong Kong!” The King used to be an inspiration for the brand new technology of dissenters: he had taken politics to the road smartly earlier than the Occupy motion seemed far and wide the arena. “He used to be the unique Occupier,” one younger clothier informed me.

In 2019, China proposed an extradition legislation that may give Beijing the ability to ship suspected criminals to the mainland to be attempted beneath the Chinese language justice machine. Hong Kong citizens feared the proposed legislation would undermine the territory’s impartial judicial machine and took to the streets of their masses of hundreds. This time the Publish-it notes unfold throughout overhead walkways and thru underground tunnels, on store home windows and side road indicators, like a swarm launched into the town. “Hong Kong isn’t China!” “We’re Hong Kong!” “House Kong!” Those weren’t solely partitions of discontent, but additionally partitions of group, partitions of harmony; again and again, the messages asserted a Hong Kong id become independent from China.

Because the protests persisted, the police spoke back with teargas and violence, arresting children merely for dressed in black, the color of the motion. The protesters additionally stepped up their techniques, throwing stones and molotov cocktails at police. The protesters graduated from Publish-it notes to graffiti sprayed without delay directly to roads, partitions and tram shelters: “Fuck the police”, “Chinazi”, “If we burn, you burn with us”.

Those slogans, just like the King’s never-ending screeds, entered the similar cycle of destruction and reclamation – although now, as a substitute of 1 guy and his paintbrush, it used to be taking place at velocity, and all around the territory on the identical time. Hong Kong’s partitions and pillars have been now coated with newly painted gray squares all of a sudden slapped over the protest slogans. As new graffiti saved showing, those too have been coated with a patchwork of white, black or darkish gray rectangles. From time to time, govt contractors painted over the characters so sparsely that they ended up emphasising each and every phrase. I noticed the phrases “Hong Kong Folks!” looming from a tram forestall so obviously, it gave the impression of the cleaners have been becoming a member of the protest. It jogged my memory of the phrases of artist Jean-Michel Basquiat: “I pass out phrases so you’ll see them extra.” It used to be a lesson Hong Kong’s government had failed to be told from the King.


In mid-2019, as I used to be protecting the protest motion, I gained a message from the King’s final helper, Joel Chung, inviting me to fulfill. I had sought after to look him after listening to strange accusations towards him via Lau, the King’s first curator. The 2 males had a famously testy dating. Lau had accused Chung of intentionally destroying items via the King. He additionally stated Chung had spray-painted over a big piece of the King’s calligraphy with a picture of skyscrapers and the phrases ART IS NOT EVERYTHING BUT WE NEED IT. Lau were so disgusted that he’d lodged a police grievance.

Chung’s administrative center used to be like a mystical museum of formative years. Dangling from the ceiling have been string luggage stuffed with red-and-white plastic balls, skipping ropes and out of date picket kite spools. Chung had established a Museum of Stationery, stuffed with cabinets of antique fountain pens, novelty erasers, and picket rulers inked with the names of generations of schoolchildren previous.

Chung used to be an eccentric determine, with trademark thick black spherical spectacles. I sparsely broached Lau’s accusations, asking if it used to be true that he’d destroyed one of the King’s calligraphy. In reaction, he cheerfully pulled up a video. The phrases “Observed; Disappeared” seemed at the display, towards a wall coated within the King’s light calligraphy. As annoying, haunting track performed, tendrils of flame licked at a work of paper coated with the King’s black characters. Feathery puffs of ash spiralled into the air as a 2d piece of calligraphy went up in flames. As I watched the video, my arms flew as much as my head in horror. Chung appeared thrilled via my response. He defined that he owned greater than 500 items of the King’s paintings, and he’d determined he may just sacrifice a few them to restore consciousness of his legacy.

Once I requested him if he’d destroyed the mural, Chung gleefully owned as much as the crime. However that used to be solely part the tale, he informed me. Actually, he’d taken measures to give protection to the King’s calligraphy via protecting it with a layer of plastic wrap, after which portray on most sensible of that. The “destruction” used to be a trompe l’oeil, he stated with delight. Lau used to be dissatisfied, he giggled, as a result of hadn’t realised that the “destruction” used to be faux.

A partially revealed work of Tsang’s under a bridge in Hong Kong.
A partly published paintings of Tsang’s beneath a bridge in Hong Kong. {Photograph}: Keith Tsuji/Rex/Shutterstock

Once I requested him in regards to the magical look of the characters I had noticed at the rainy wall in Central, he let me right into a secret. He had blended particular inks for the King which have been surprisingly sticky, occasionally the usage of a mix of ink, acrylic and water, and occasionally turpentine and tooth paint. In Central, the King’s ink were so sticky that the gray paint utilized by the government to hide it had caught to the ink, after which by some means each layers had flaked off, leaving the description of the characters beneath obviously visual.

As I took my depart, Chung walked me to the elevate. It used to be an historical cage-type elevator with horizontal double doorways that joined within the center, requiring somebody to concurrently pull them up and down to fulfill within the center. “Are you in a rush?” Chung requested, casually. “Have you were given 5 mins?” He jumped into the elevate with me, and we descended. After we reached flooring stage, he picked up his tempo. I used to be suffering to maintain as he cantered throughout a freeway, dodging vehicles. After we reached the median strip, he clambered up a financial institution. In entrance folks, via some scrubby timber, used to be the rounded pillar of a flyover.

I may just rarely imagine my eyes. The column used to be coated with the King’s phrases. Now not the ghost phrases or the sun-damaged patches of writing I’d present in my searches, however thick black characters in superb situation. The patch of writing used to be about one sq. metre – a lot better than every other instance of the King’s paintings within the wild. How the heck had it survived overlooked?

This, it grew to become out, used to be a part of Joel Chung’s secret project. He defined that he’d accompanied the King when he used to be running. When the King first painted the pillar, Chung had famous its location on a spreadsheet. When the unique paintings used to be coated up via a central authority contractor, he’d marked that down, too. Now he used to be methodically chipping away on the gray paint to show the calligraphy beneath. It used to be gradual and tedious paintings, and he’d already spent greater than per week in this pillar. As soon as the entire paintings used to be visual, he’d quilt it in a clear oil to keep it. Then, he’d paint over it with a contemporary coat of gray paint, leaving nobody any the wiser.

For a decade, running from his spreadsheet, Chung were methodically uncovering the King’s hidden works one at a time, restoring them, then portray over them once more. He used to be making a clandestine museum of the King’s paintings, recognized solely to himself.

3 years later, a few of these items are coming to mild, because the uppermost layers flake off or are got rid of. On the identical time, the King of Kowloon is having a revival. He used to be entrance and centre on the first exhibition held at Hong Kong’s new £620m M+ visible arts museum, which after all opened its doorways in November 2021, 4 years at the back of time table. He used to be additionally feted on the prestigious Artwork Basel in Hong Kong in Might, the place relics of the King similar to his tv and his kettle have been exhibited along his works of art.

However the King’s paintings used to be now not supposed for rarefied artwork galleries; it used to be intended to be out at the streets, the place it might be noticed via his folks. Chung’s painstaking paintings is making sure that this may occasionally nonetheless be imaginable for a while to come back.


Wrooster I used to be younger, folks noticed the King of Kowloon as a madman. However this present day folks whisper that possibly he used to be a shaman or a prophet whose phrases predicted a long term of subjugation and loss. In 2020, after draconian nationwide safety law used to be imposed on Hong Kong, the very act of saying the land or mentioning sovereignty might be noticed as an act of secession.

Since that law, the Hong Kong of previous has been remade. Its legislature has been reshaped right into a “patriots-only” frame with election applicants requiring police vetting for patriotism, whilst dozens of democratic politicians are in prison on subversion fees. Its civil servants are pressured to make oaths of allegiance. College curricula are being rewritten to emphasize “nationwide safety” moderately than crucial pondering. Civil society organisations had been disbanded, and marches outlawed, allegedly on Covid protection grounds.

Tsang Tsou-choi in 1996.
Tsang Tsou-choi in 1996. {Photograph}: David Clarke

The King of Kowloon’s preoccupations – sovereignty, territory, dispossession and loss – have been prophetic. He used to be exploring those concepts concurrently lecturers, philosophers, artists and musicians. After the nationwide safety law modified Hong Kong for ever, a few of these artists and thinkers have been imprisoned, some went into exile and a few merely stopped speaking. My pursuit of the King had led me to his courtiers, who grew to become out to be a few of Hong Kong’s maximum influential minds, and so I changed into an archivist of disappearance.

At some point, years earlier than the protests, I visited a well known Hong Kong artist who informed me he regarded as Tsang his hero. I requested him what he’d discovered from him. “Choice,” he spoke back, “as an individual, now not as an artist. Any person taking motion for what he believes in, for years and years. I don’t see any individual that may examine with him.”

Some other of the King’s fans informed me what the King had taught him: “To be a Hong Kong particular person and inform the Hong Kong tale to others.”

The questions that were so central to me once I set out have been not essential. I nonetheless didn’t know if the King used to be mentally competent or now not. I’d failed to verify or deny the reality of his territorial declare. What mattered used to be now not the substance of his declare, however the way it gave a voice to sentiments we didn’t know till he voiced them for us.

Beneath the spell of his imagined sovereignty, he’d pressured us to reckon with our personal conflicted id and measure ourselves towards the self-governing entity that he offered. As of late, our goals had been outlawed, our anthems and slogans banned, our very ideas choked off earlier than they might shape. Now all of us are Kings of Kowloon, dispossessed of our ancestral lands, shorn of the very concept of ourselves, left with not anything however our loss.

Tailored from Indelible Town: Dispossession and Defiance in Hong Kong via Louisa Lim, printed via Textual content. Louisa Lim’s podcast, The King of Kowloon, is made via ABC.

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